Unfair competition

1. A general term describing a basket of harms — for example, passing-off, injurious falsehood, interference with economic relations, conspiracy, breach of confidence — that amount to torts against businesses harmed by them.

2. Sometimes used as a synonym for misappropriation, the wrong of unfairly taking or using business assets to the injury of their holder. It was used, for example, in the United States by Dow Jones to prevent the Chicago Board of Trade from adopting a futures trading contract based on the Dow Jones index. The civil law of Quebec may recognize a similar wrong, but no Canadian common law province presently does; nor may the federal parliament constitutionally enact it.

3. An abusive, legally insignificant term an enterprise may use to describe any practice by which another manages to undersell it.