Ratification

The process by which a state that has participated in the negotiation and adoption of the text of a treaty subsequently expresses its consent to be bound by that treaty.

A state’s act of expressing its consent to be bound by a treaty where signature alone does not suffice. It consists of the exchange of instruments of ratification (for bilateral treaties) or the deposit of such an instrument with a depositary (for multilateral treaties). Sometimes mistakenly used to describe any process of legislative approval of a treaty.

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